Geographic Information System (GIS) is a difficult phrase to define in the subject of geography. It entails the synthesis of a variety of topics. As a result, there is no universally accepted definition of a GIS (deMers, 1997). The National Centre of Geographic Information and Analysis provides a widely accepted definition of GIS: a GIS is a system of hardware, software, and procedures that facilitates the management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, representation, and display of georeferenced data to solve complex problems in resource planning and management (NCGIA, 1990).
Extremely big and complicated data sets can be compressed and recovered quickly and accurately. The employment of automated processes necessitates uniformity in both data storage formats and data processing methodologies. Second, the practical uses of many of the quantitative and analytical approaches established in the earth/social sciences and other fields are limited. Computers enable vast amounts of observational data to be processed. Simultaneously, fast advancements in information and communication technology have transformed satellite photography into a high-value-added service. The usage of computer technology was expanded by combining data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), Remote Sensing (RS), and other sources. As a result, computer-assisted GIS is becoming increasingly important for users’ benefit.
In the middle of the 1960s, government agencies established the first Geographic Information System (GIS) in response to a growing understanding of the importance of dealing with complex environmental and natural resource concerns. Geographic information systems (GIS) emerged as a scientific discipline in the latter part of the 1980s, relying on both real-world data and cutting-edge electronic technology. GIscience (which includes both technologies and science linked to geographical database handling and application for social welfare and economic development) is emerging as one of the most important scientific disciplines at the turn of the twenty-first century. With the advancement of communication technology, computer applications, and the realization of geographic data on social welfare and economic planning, new concepts of database management and GIS use, such as geo-databases, database infrastructure, data mining, GIS tooling, and web GIS, have been introduced. It’s also linked to other data-gathering and analyzing disciplines. As a result, GIS is proving to be a beneficial tool and science for interpreting natural and social events in a “holistic” manner.